Friday, 5 October 2012
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By: Adi Patoni, SH Before defining what political science, it is necessary to know first what it is political. Etymologically, politics comes from the Greek "polis" meaning city of the status of the country. In general political terms can be interpreted in a variety of activities related to the process of defining the goals of the system and carry out those goals. According to Miriam Budiardjo in the book "Fundamentals of Political Science," Political science is the study of politics. Politics is defined as efforts to achieve the good life. The Greeks like Plato and Aristotle called it en dam Onia or the good life (the good life). According to Goodin in the book "A New Handbook of Political Science," politics can be defined as the use of social power by force. So, political science can be defined as the nature and source of coercion and how to use social power to force it. Several different definitions are also given by the experts, for example: • According to Bluntschli, Garner and Frank Goodnow stated that political science is the study of the state. • According to Seely and Stephen Leacock, political science is the science of harmony in dealing with government. • On the other hand French thinkers such as Paul Janet addressing political science as a science that governs the development of the State as well as the principles of government, this argument is also supported by RN Gilchrist. Political science is theoretically divided to two, namely: • Valuational means of political science based on moral and political norms. Valuational theory consists of political philosophy, political ideology and systematic. • Non valuational meaning of political science and mengkomparasikan merely describe one event with another event without referring to morals or norms. Development of Political Science Political science is one of the oldest sciences from a variety of existing disciplines. Ever since people started living together, the issue of regulation and supervision begins. Since then political thinkers began to discuss issues concerning the application of power constraints, the relationship between the ruling and the ruled, and what system best ensures the fulfillment of the regulation and supervision. Political science begins with the well at the time of Ancient Greece, making an increase in Roman times, not so developed in the Middle Ages, the least developed in the Renaissance and Enlightenment, made some substantial progress in the 19th century, and then grow very rapidly in the 20th century due to political science gain characteristics. Political science as thinking about the state already began in 450 BC as in the works of Herodotus, Plato, Aristotle, and others. In some Asian cultural centers such as India and China, has collected some of the paper quality. The writings of India collects in the literature Dharmasatra and Arthasastra, dating from approximately 500 BC Among the famous Chinese philosopher, was Confucius, Mencius, and Shan Yang (± 350 BC). In Indonesia there are several papers on the state, for example Negarakertagama about the 13th century and chronicles the Land Jawi. Literature in Asian countries began to decline because of being pressured by Western thought brought by colonial countries of the West. In continental European countries own a discussion of politics in the 18th century and the 19th was much influenced by the science of law, political science because it focuses only on the state. In addition to law, the influence of the history and philosophy of science in political science is still felt through World War II. In the United States there is a development of different, because there is a desire to break free from judicial pressure, and more are resting on empirical data collection. Further development along with the development of sociology and psychology, so that the two branches of the influence of political science. Further development runs quickly, can be seen with the establishment of the American Political Science Association in 1904. The development of political science after World War II grow more rapidly, such as in Amsterdam, the Netherlands established the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, although research on the state in the Netherlands is still dominated by the Faculty of Law. In Indonesia established Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, such as at the University of Riau. Early development of political science in Indonesia is strongly influenced by the law, because higher education is very advanced legal studies at itu.Sekarang, the concepts of the new political science has begun to be accepted by society. In the countries of Eastern Europe, the traditional approach in terms of history, philosophy, and the law is still in force today. After the collapse of communism, political science is growing rapidly, can be seen with ditambahnya approaches being developed in western countries the traditional approaches. The development of political science is also caused by a strong urge several international bodies, such as UNESCO. Because of differences in methodology and terminology in political science, the UNESCO tahun1948 conduct a survey on political science in approximately 30 countries. Later, the project was discussed a few experts in France, and produced a book Contemporary Political Science in 1948. Furthermore, UNESCO of the International Political Science Association (IPSA), which covers approximately ssepuluh countries, including Western countries, in addition to India, Mexico, and Poland. In 1952 the results of this study are discussed at a conference in Cambridge, England, and the results are compiled by W. A. Robson from the London School of Economics and Political Science in The University Teaching of Political Science. It was published by UNESCO for teaching some of the social sciences (including economics, cultural anthropology, and criminology) in college. Both works are intended to foster the development of political science and bring together different views. In subsequent periods the social sciences tend to use the findings from anthropology, sociology, psychology, and economics, political science and thus can improve the quality with many taking models from other branches of the social sciences. Thanks to this, the face of politics has changed, and political science to be the science that is important to learn to understand politics.